Supply Chain Innovation

Hazelnut Workers in Turkey: Demographic Profiling; Duzce, Ordu, and Sakarya, 2016

Publication date: 
Friday, September 29, 2017

The worker demographic profiling report presented here was produced to support the work of the project “Partnership to Reduce Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural Products: Piloting the USDA Guidelines in the Hazelnut Supply Chain in Turkey,” conducted by the Fair Labor Association (FLA) as part of its cooperative agreement with the US Department of Labor.

This report presents a detailed overview of individuals involved in the hazelnut harvest and their households, through descriptive and comparative statistics identifying the difference between local and seasonal-migrant workers, with a special focus on child labor and/or forced labor. These findings improve all stakeholders' understanding of the labor force involved in the hazelnut harvest and will aid project partners in targeted interventions that provide solutions to issues faced by workers in hazelnut gardens, particularly the robust migrant workforce that travels to the Black Sea region for the harvest.

This research was designed with the purpose of developing a general profile of workers in hazelnut harvesting, more specifically of those working in the orchards providing hazelnuts for Nestlé and its two main first-tier suppliers, Balsu and Olam Progıda.  The orchards were selected randomly from within the supply chain of these companies in villages within the scope of the project.  A total of 95 interviews were conducted in 56 orchards, yielding information on 702 individuals belonging to the worker households in three provinces in the Black Sea region of Turkey, with Duzce and Sakarya grouped together as the Western Region, and Ordu representing the Eastern Region.  Detailed findings on gender, age, literacy, languages, land-ownership, and other demographic characterstics appear in a report available upon request, along with worker reflections on wages, hours of work, rest days, and other workplace issues.  

(Infographics on seasonal agricultural workers in general and seasonal child workers in particular are available for download.) 

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